The mosses and liverworts, together with the hornworts, are a group of small flowerless plants together known as the Bryophytes. 

A bryophyte covered wall in the Peak District
A bryophyte covered wall in the Peak District

They form an important part of our flora, the bog mosses (Sphagnum) in particular playing a critical role in the control of our water as well as providing an important habitat for other plants and animals.  They are sensitive to both air and water quality and provide important indicators to the “health” of our environment.

Moss and Liverwort Identification

There are around 760 species of moss, 300 species of liverwort and four species of hornwort known currently in the British Flora.  They are all small and need skill and practice to identify – typically field identification requires the use of a lens and very often microscopy is needed to confirm identifications.  On the other hand they are abundant in many different habitats and can be studied throughout the year making them a very accessible group.  Our bryophyte courses are taught by expert botanists who will teach you about both their ecology and identification.


The differences between mosses and liverworts are not clear-cut but, once shown by our tutors most of these differences are straightforward to see using a pocket lens.  Scientists now believe that, although the plants can look similar the evolutionary differences are, in fact, profound.   A start to their study can be made in towns and gardens and on local walks as they grow in lawns, on walls and paths, on soil and rock and many are what are known as “epiphytic” – they grow on trees.  For the more adventurous they form an important part of bog floras and many unusual species grow on the coast or in high mountains.

The British Bryological Society fully supports the aim of promoting active conservation through learning.  For more details about the work of the Society or for membership information, visit .

Mosses and Liverworts Identification Courses

FSC run regular Moss and Liverwort Courses throughout throughout the year.
For details of these courses, and to learn more about Mosses and Liverworts view click the link below.

Find out about bursaries for natural history courses including mosses and liverworts identification courses.

Identification resources:

FSC Mosses and Liverworts of Town and Garden Guide
FSC Mosses and Liverworts of Woodlands Guide