- Complete the fieldwork requirements for AS level students within physical and human environments.
- Prepare AS level students for either Section B or C in both examination papers, worth 10% of their total marks.
- Cover a choice of physical specification content for AS fieldwork in Topic 2: Glaciated Landscapes or Coastal Landscapes.
- Cover human specification content for AS fieldwork in Topic 4: Regenerating Places or Diverse Places.
- For those going on to A level, this course will provide contextualised learning in inspiring real world environments to develop their geographical understanding for the A level examinations.
- Students will be greeted by FSC staff, with a welcome talk followed by a brief tour of the Centre and the local area.
- Outline of the Course
- Allocation of wellies/waterproofs.
By visiting a local coastline students will develop an understanding of the distinctive coastal features and begin to consider the systems that form the coast. Sediment transportation and deposition create distinctive landforms; students will investigate the underlying causes such as angle of wave attack, tidal flow and the process of longshore drift.
Glacial Processes and Systems - Erosion
Students will develop a sense of place in an inspiring local environment, gaining an understanding of glacial processes and systems and their role in shaping the present landscape. They will explore the impact of icon the landscape, observing landforms such as corries, roche moutonnees, glacial troughs, hanging valleys and truncated spurs, which have resulted from erosional processes.
Coastal Fieldwork Methods
Students will follow up their fieldwork on sediment transportation by conducting a student t test, as well considering the wider aspects of coastlines. Alternative fieldwork methods that could be employed to investigate other aspects of coastal environments will be introduced including a coastal (ecosystem) transect.
Integrated Geographical Skills: Landscape Interpretation - Glacial Processes: Erosion
Students will explore the link between the impact of former glaciers and ice sheets on the UK landscape and the consequences of ongoing deglaciation in other global settings.
Morning and Afternoon
Formation of Erosional Coastal Landforms
A full fieldwork day collecting primary data to build an in depth understanding of the erosional features of the chosen coast. The impact of wind, waves and local geology all play a part in creating the unique features that are present at any location. Students will consider how different wave types influence beach morphology and sediment profiles, taking into account seasonal changes using secondary data.
- Changing Coastal Sediments
- Changing Coastal Profiles
Glacial Processes and Systems - Deposition
Students will explore an awe inspiring post-glacial environment, piecing together the processes and chronology that has created the landscape they see today. Students will explore the impact of ice on the landscape, observing landforms such as moraines, erratic, drumlins, kame and eskers, which have resulted from depositional processes. Through direct observation and use of maps or aerial photos, students will gain knowledge of a number of glacial depositional landforms, including the processes that led to their creation.
Interpretation, Analysis and Evaluation - Coastal Landforms
Students will consider the importance of erosional processes in the formation of coastal landforms. They will use measures of central tendency to = classify waves and assess the impact that these have on the landforms and coastal landscape.
Integrated Geographical Skills: Landscape Interpretation - Glacial Processes: Depositional
Students will explore the link between the impact of former glaciers and ice sheets on the UK landscape and the consequences of ongoing deglaciation in other global settings. An example of one of the skills covered is till fabric analysis using rose diagrams.
Managing Coastal Risks
The sustainable management of a local coastline will be considered within the current risks of coastal recession and flooding. Assessing how a local stretch of coastline is managed to reduce risk, via hard and soft engineering and the extent of its success will evaluated through a range of techniques.
- Success of Coastal Management Approaches
Glacial Upland Landscapes: Uses and Management Approaches
Students will examine the economic significance of the glacial landscape, investigate the impact humans have on the fragile ecology of glacial landscapes and evaluate ways in which different stakeholders work together to manage glacial landscapes – particularly given the contextual risk climate warming has for these unique and fragile landscapes.
Diverse Living Spaces
In this session learners will explore and compare the role of direct experience with the way others represent place, they will explore different groups of people’s image of a local places considering the potential for improvement in the area. A range of different media will be used to provide contrasting evidence about the image different people have of the places. Students will then consider how the representations of the place could be used to influence the perception of cultural and demographic issues. The way we understand a place is also manipulated by a range of agents and learners will examine the way we ultimately develop our sense of place through the analysis of a range of qualitative and quantitative data that look into these different ways ‘place’ is planned and communicated.
Regenerating Places: Lived Experience and Community Engagement
Each of us is different in the way we perceive, use, shape and are influenced by place. Students will consider variations in the lived experience of a place that is new to them and the resultant discrepancies in levels of engagement. Understanding this concept at the outset will prepare students to meaningfully assess characteristics and perceptions of a place that ultimately lead to a need for regeneration. It could also form a foundation for evaluating the complexities of a successful regeneration project or scheme.
Skills Workshop: Qualitative Data /Information Analysis and Evaluation
A range of different tools will be used including coding, textual and photo analysis to interrogate the results from the previous practical research session. Students will engage in qualitative data analysis which involves such processes as;
- Identifying how formal and statistical representations of a place, such as census and geospatial data, contrasts with informal representations.
- Examining a range of secondary data (e.g.map representations of IMD) which will be combined with the fieldwork data to better understand how social inequality impacts upon peoples’ daily lives in different ways.
Recognition of the values laden nature of this work will be made, with consideration of the part played by personal values and the values being engaged by place in our daily lives and this work. These skills will be invaluable in interpreting outcomes of this contemporary, complex topic.
A range of geographical skills, including statistics will support students’ analysis of the investigation.
Morning and Afternoon
Perceptions of Living Space: Urban or Rural
Through working outside into the local environment students will explore the concept of place, how we and others see, experience and understand place in different ways and how this can change over time. When investigating a place, students should consider where it is, what it is like, how it became like this and how it might change in the future.
Regenerating Urban or Rural Places: Public Perceptions of Place and Evidence of Rebranding
This session will develop the students’ practical geographical skills during a range of data collection methods and their understanding of the concept of the need for regeneration. They will immerse themselves in an urban or rural place and assess the economic, environmental and social characteristics to identify the need for regeneration. Students will then assess a range of rebranding attempts for evidence of changing and improved public perceptions of place and increased potential for public investment. There is a spatial and temporal context to both aspects of this investigation that will develop the students’ appreciation of the complexities of geographical concepts and cultivate the concept that a place is a process; it evolves over time with a range of interrelated influences continually shaping ‘place’.
Geographical Investigation Process: Presentation, Interpretation, Analysis and Evaluation
Students will follow a structured scientific investigation process to interpret their data within relevant economic, social and environmental perspectives. This will enable students to contextualise their knowledge and develop their understanding of the complexities of the regeneration process and the importance of an individual’s role in society. Students will engage in a qualitative data analysis using their personal observations and data collated during the day’s session. A range of analysis techniques will be introduced and there will be an opportunity for students to apply these skills to the data and draw their own conclusions as they work through the course.
Demographics and Cultural Characteristics: Urban or Rural
Different communities may be distinguished from other urban areas and their rural hinterland by exploring the variety of its demographic and cultural characteristics such as ethnic variation, land use, income, health, levels of crime, and density of population, education and health. Data sets such as Indices of Multiple Deprivation and police crime statistics provide an insight into spatial differences such as crime, poverty and deprivation across the UK. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provides a powerful tool to view and interrogate this data spatially and graphically in order to identify distinctive areas and issues related to demographic and cultural change.
Regenerating Places: Evaluating the Success of Urban or Rural Rebranding and Reimaging
Having secured an understanding of how and why a need for regeneration may arise, students will use this session to consider the varied measures of success that may be applied to regeneration and rebranding strategies. The success criteria of different stakeholders may conflict; both within the local and wider scales. Students will thus consolidate their appreciation that the environmental, social and economic processes within a place must be balanced for truly sustainable, successful regeneration outcomes to be attained.
Depart at Midday
A final farewell from FSC staff as the students depart at midday
Please note: to ensure safe and quality learning experiences for students, the timetable may alter depending on weather conditions and local factors at centres.
How this course fulfills the specification
Topic 2: Landscape Systems, Processes and Change
Option 2A Glaciated Landscapes and Change
Enquiry Question 2: What processes operate within glacier systems?
2A.6 The glacier landform system
a. Glaciers alter landscapes through a number of processes: details of erosion, entrainment, transport and deposition.
b. Glacial landforms develop at macro-, meso- and micro-scales with distinctive morphologies in process environments, such as subglacial, marginal, proglacial and periglacial.
c. These landforms create a number of distinctive landscapes in upland and lowland areas that can be used to study the extent of ice cover.
Enquiry Question 3: How do glacial processes contribute to the formation of glacial landforms and landscapes?
2A.7Glacial erosion creates distinctive landforms and contributes to glaciated landscapes.
a. Glacial, erosional processes (abrasion, quarrying, plucking, crushing and basal melting, combined with subaerial freeze thaw and mass movement).
b. The processes leading to the formation of landforms associated with cirque and valley glaciers (cirques/corries, arêtes, pyramidal peaks, glacial troughs, truncated spurs and hanging valleys and ribbon lakes).
c. The formation of landforms due to ice sheet scouring (roches moutonnées, knock and lochan, crag and tail) and the influence of differential geology.
2A.8 Glacial deposition creates distinctive landforms and contributes to glaciated landscapes.
a. The formation of ice contact depositional features (medial, lateral, recessional and terminal moraines and drumlins).
b. The formation of lowland depositional features (till plains, lodgement and ablation till).
c. The assemblage of landforms can be used to reconstruct former ice extent and movement and for provenance (erratics, moraines, crag and tail, drumlin orientation).
2A.9 Glacial meltwater plays a significant role in creating distinctive landforms and contributes to glaciated landscapes.
a. The processes of water movement within the glacial system (supraglacial, englacial and sub-glacial flows).
b. Glacial and fluvioglacial deposits have different characteristics (stratification, sorting, imbrication and grading).
c. The formation of fluvioglacial landforms; ice contact features (kames and eskers and kame terraces) and proglacial features (sandurs, proglacial lakes, meltwater channels, and kettleholes).
Enquiry Question 4: How are glaciated landscapes used and managed today?
2A.11 There are threats facing fragile active and relict glaciated upland landscapes.
a. Glaciated landscapes face varying degrees of threat from both natural hazards (avalanches and glacial outburst floods) and human activities (leisure and tourism, reservoir construction, urbanisation).
b. Human activity can degrade the landscape and fragile ecology of glaciated landscapes (soil erosion, trampling, landslides, deforestation).
c. Global warming is having a major impact on glacial mass balances, which in turn risks disruption of the hydrological cycle (meltwater and river discharge, sediment yield, water quality).
Option 2B Coastal Landscape and Change
Enquiry Question 1: Why are coastal landscapes different and what processes cause these differences?
2B.3 Rates of coastal recession and stability depend on lithology and other factors.
b. Differential erosion of alternating strata in cliffs (permeable/impermeable, resistant/less resistant) produces complex cliff profiles and influences recession rates.
Enquiry Question 2: How do characteristic coastal landforms contribute to coastal landscapes?
2B.4 Marine erosion creates distinctive coastal landforms and contributes to coastal landscapes.
a. Different wave types (constructive/destructive) influence beach morphology and beach sediment profiles, which vary seasonally.
b. The importance of erosion processes (hydraulic action, corrosion, abrasion, attrition) is influenced by wave type, size and lithology.
c. Erosion creates distinctive coastal landforms (wave cut notches, wave cut platforms, cliffs, cave-arch-stack-stump sequence).
2B.5 Sediment transport and deposition create distinctive landforms and contribute to coastal landscapes.
a. Sediment transportation is influenced by angle of wave attack, tides and currents and the process of longshore drift.
Enquiry Question 4: How can coastlines be managed to meet the needs of all players?
2B.11 There are different approaches to managing the risks associated with coastal recession and flooding.
a. Hard engineering approaches (groynes, sea walls, rip rap, revetments, off-shore breakwaters) are economically costly and directly alter physical processes and systems.
b. Soft engineering approaches (beach nourishment, cliff regarding and drainage, dune stabilisation) attempt to work with physical systems and processes to protect coasts.
c. Sustainable management is designed to cope with future threats (increased storm events, rising sea levels) but its implementation can lead to local conflict
Topic 4: Shaping Places
Option 4A Regenerating Places
Enquiry Question 2: Why might regeneration be needed?
4A.4 Economic and social inequalities changes people’sperceptions of an area.
c. There are priorities for regeneration due to significant variations in both economic and social inequalities (gated communities, ‘sink estates’, commuter villages, declining rural settlements).
4A.5 There are significant variations in the lived experience of place and engagement with them.
a. There are wide variations in levels of engagement in local communities (local and national election turnout, development and support for local community groups). (A: local communities vary in attitudes)
b. Lived experience of, and attachment to, places varies according to age, ethnicity, gender, length of residence (new migrants, students) and levels of deprivation; these in turn impact on levels of engagement. (A: Attachment to places influence attitudes)
c. Conflicts can occur among contrasting groups in communities that have different views about the priorities and strategies for regeneration, these have complex causes (lack of political engagement and representation, ethnic tensions, inequality and lack of economic opportunity). (P: Players vary attitudes(A) and may have contrasting approaches
4A.6 There is a range of ways to evaluate the need for regeneration.
a. The use of statistical evidence to determine the need for regeneration in your chosen local place.
b. Different media can provide contrasting evidence, questioning the need for regeneration in your chosen local place.
c. How different representations of your chosen local place could influence the perceived need for regeneration.
Enquiry Question 3: How is regeneration managed?
4A.8 Local government policies aim to represent areas as being attractive for inward investment.
b. Local interest groups (Chambers of Commerce, local preservation societies, trade unions) play a key role in decision-making about regeneration; there are often tensions between groups that wish to preserve urban environments and those that seek change.
c. Urban and rural regeneration strategies include retail-led plans, tourism, leisure and sport public/private rural diversification.
4A.9 Rebranding attempts to represent areas as being more attractive by changing public perception of them.
a. Rebranding involves re-imaging places using a variety of media to improve the image of both urban and rural locations and make them more attractive for potential investors.
b. For UK deindustrialised cities, rebranding can stress the attraction of places, creating specific place identity building on their industrial heritage; this can attract national and international tourists and visitors
c. There are a range of rural rebranding strategies in the postproduction countryside based on heritage and literary associations, farm diversification and specialised products, outdoor pursuits and adventure in both accessible and remote areas; these strategies are intended to make these places more attractive to national and international tourists and visitors.
Enquiry Question 4: How successful is regeneration?
4A.10 The success of regeneration uses a range of measures: economic, demographic, social and environmental.
a. The success of economic regeneration can be assessed using measures of income, poverty and employment (both relative and absolute changes) both within areas and by comparison to other more successful areas.
b. Social progress can be measured by reductions in inequalities both between areas and within them; social progress can also be measured by improvements in social measures of deprivation and in demographic changes (improvements in life expectancy and reductions in health deprivation).
c. Regeneration is successful if it leads to an improvement in the living environment (levels of pollution reduced, reduction in abandoned and derelict land).
4A.11 Different urban stakeholders have different criteria for judging the success of urban regeneration.
a. A study of the strategies used in the regeneration of an urban place and the contested nature of these decisions within local communities.
b. The changes that have taken place as a consequence of national and local strategies can be judged using a range of economic, social, demographic and environmental variables in an urban area. (F: future success depends on past decisions)
c. Different stakeholders (local and national governments, local businesses and residents) will assess success using contrasting criteria; their views will depend on the meaning and lived experiences of an urban place and the impact of change on both the reality and the image of that place.
4A.12 Different rural stakeholders have different criteria for judging the success of rural regeneration.
a. A study of the strategies used in the restructuring of a rural place and the contested nature of these decisions within local communities.
b. The changes that have taken place as a consequence of national and local strategies can be judged using a range of economic, social, demographic and environmental variables in a rural area. (F: future success depends on past decisions)
c. Different stakeholders (local and national governments, local businesses and residents) will assess success using contrasting criteria; their views will depend on the meaning and lived experiences of a rural place and the impact of change on both the reality and the image of that place.
Option 4B Diverse Places
Enquiry Question 2: How do people view diverse living spaces?
4B.4 Urban places are seen differently by different groups because of their lived experience of places and their perception of those places.
a. During industrialisation, urban places were perceived by some as dangerous and threatening); currently they could be seen as attractive because of their range of economic opportunities and the variety of social and leisure activities that attract young people and migrants.
b. Some urban locations are perceived as undesirable or even threatening by residents and/or outsiders due to high crime rates, low environmental quality, population characteristics and reputation based on quantitative data but also due to lived experience and media representation.
c. Suburban and inner-city areas are perceived differently in terms of their desirability as places to live and work by contrasting demographic groups (by age, ethnicity, life - cycle stage).
4B.5 Rural places are seen differently by different groups because of their lived experience of places and their perception of those places.
a. Rural places are often perceived as idyllic because of their tranquillity, natural landscapes and historical and cultural associations (Hardy’s ‘Wessex’).
b. Some rural locations are perceived as undesirable by residents and/or outsiders because of remoteness, limited social opportunities, limited range of services, high transport costs, population characteristics and reputation based on quantitative data but also because of lived experience and media representation.
c. Rural areas are viewed in different ways: from very remote areas to retirement villages and commuter villages.
4B.6 There is a range of ways to evaluate how people view their living spaces.
a. The use of statistical evidence to determine whether people have a positive or negative image of your chosen local place.
b. Different media can provide contrasting evidence about the image different people have of your chosen local place.
c. How different representations of your chosen local place could be used to influence the perception of cultural and demographic issues and conflict.
4B.8 Levels of segregation reflect cultural, economic and social variation and change over time.
a. International migrants tend to live in distinctive places with ethnicsegregation closely related to economic indicators (income and employment) and social indicators (health, crime and education).
b. Diverse living spaces in urban areas have social characteristics that reflect ethnicity and culture in terms of distinctive retail outlets, places of worship and leisure.
c. Experiences and perceptions of living spaces change overgenerations as communities have evolved economically andculturally.
Appendix 2: Fieldwork Skills
1. Identify appropriate field research questions, based on their knowledge and understanding of relevant aspects of physical and human geography.
2. Undertake informed and critical questioning of data sources, analytical methodologies, data reporting and presentation, including the ability to identify sources of error in data and to identify the misuse of data.
3. Understand how to observe and record phenomena in the field and be able to devise and justify practical approaches taken in the field, (including frequency/timing of observation, sampling, and data collection approaches).
4. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of how to select practical field methodologies (primary) appropriate to their investigation.
5. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of implementing chosen methodologies to collect data/information of good quality that is relevant to the topic of investigation.
6. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the techniques appropriate for analysing field data and information and for representing results, including GIS, and show ability to select suitable quantitative or qualitative approaches and to apply them.
7. Apply existing knowledge and concepts to identify, order and understand field observations.
8. Show the ability to present and write a coherent analysis of fieldwork findings and results in order to justify conclusions as well as to interpret meaning from the investigation, including the significance of any measurement or other errors
Added value of this course
- Develop personal skills
- Have fun
- Be inspired by a passion for the subject
- Build friendships