Conservation biology is the science and practice of conserving the Earth’s biological diversity. As the size of the human population increases, there is an urgent need to manage our impacts on ecosystems and use of biological resources more sustainably. Conservation management may include the preservation, protection, or restoration of species populations, habitats, or ecosystems. These actions can help to reduce species extinctions, the erosion of biotic interactions and environmental degradation.

Biological conservation may occur in situ or ex situ. In situ conservation means that biological diversity is conserved in its natural environment, for example through legally protected areas or habitat restoration. Ex situ conservation refers to the conservation of biological diversity outside its natural environment, for example in zoos and botanic gardens. Legislation and government policy at national and international levels are also important in conservation management.

Bird boxes are one strategy for supporting species populations on nature reserves

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